The OCB Working Group "Towards a better understanding of fish contribution to carbon flux" meeting was held March 4-5, 2019 at Rutgers University (New Jersey, USA).
Working Group Goals
- Synthesize the existing research on fish carbon flux
- Recognize challenges in measuring fish carbon flux and discuss approaches to resolve them
- Develop research priorities to fill the large gaps in understanding fish carbon flux
- Identify opportunities to obtain resources needed to move this research forward
- Finalize Paper 1: Synthesis, Challenges, Gaps, Research Priorities, Assign specific tasks with deadlines for completion
- Make as much progress as possible on Paper 2: Outline emerging methods, and first attempt at estimating global and/or regional carbon contributions
- Finalize Approaches for Fish Biomass Estimates, Passive and Active Fish Carbon Fluxes, Comparisons to Total Carbon Flux and Zooplankton Flux
- Assign specific tasks with deadlines to complete Paper 2
- Discuss Potential Proposals for Filling Gaps
Agenda with presentations
Day 1: Monday, March 4
8:30-9:30 Breakfast and Networking
9:50-10:10 Overview of Project and Workshop Goals (Grace) Slides
10:10-10:30 Presentation: Paper 1 (Synthesis, Challenges, Gaps, Research Priorities) (Angela) Slides
10:30AM-12:00 Discussion: Paper 1
- Any additions/edits to Synthesis, Challenges, Gaps, Research Priorities?
- What further analyses and figures do we need to complete this paper?
- Task assignments
1:00-1:30 Presentation: Fish Biomass: Challenges and Best Approaches
- Guest Presenter: Olaf Jensen, Rutgers University Slides
- Guest Presenter: Charles Stock, NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Slides
1:30-3:00 Discussion/Analysis: Finalize how we will approach the biomass issue
- Global or regional or habitat type (e.g., open ocean vs. coastal) assessment?
- Global is valuable for policy issues
- Maybe global plus 1 or 2 different, specific regions?
- Average and ranges
- Minimum with constrain biogeochemical models (i.e., the impact that fish have on BGC fluxes, especially to make case that even with the minimum number, the impact is still significant)
- Coastal Epipelagic v. Open ocean mesopelagic fish?
- Global or regional or habitat type (e.g., open ocean vs. coastal) assessment?
3:00-3:30 Break and Refreshments
3:30-4:30 Continued Discussion/Analysis
6:00 Group Dinner in New Brunswick
Day 2: Tuesday, March 5
8:30 Breakfast and Networking
9:30 Presentations: Getting Carbon Estimates from Fish Biomass
- Bioenergetic v. Aquaculture models – Kenny (10 minutes) Slides
- Size-based allometric relationships with Carbon – Kenny/Clive (10 minutes) Slides
- Carbon stable isotopes – Clive (10 minutes) Slides
10:00 Presentations: Forms of Carbon (Passive: fecal/deadfalls; Active: respired/excreted), PIC
- Fecal pellet flux – Grace (10 minutes) Slides
- Inorganic carbon – Rod (10 minutes) Slides
- Respiration/ETS – Santiago (10 minutes) Slides
- Carbon extracted by fisheries – Joe (10 minutes) Slides
10:40 Discussion/Analysis: Paper 2 (Outline emerging methods, and first attempt at estimating global and/or regional carbon contributions)
- Vertical (C burial via active and passive) & Horizontal (through active nearshore/offshore migrations and/or large latitudinal migrations)?
- Finalize approaches for carbon estimates (for each form of carbon) based on biomass approach
- Task assignments
1:00 Presentation: Approach for comparisons of Fish C Flux to Total and Zooplankton Flux
- Zooplankton component – Debbie/Stephanie (10 minutes) Slides
- Zooplankton and Fish Comparisons – Santiago (10 minutes) Slides
- Methods/models for estimating Total C flux – John (10 minutes) Slides
1:30 Continued Discussion/Analysis
3:00 Break and Refreshments
Proposal ideas for gap filling: Develop a science plan that will foster prepared action for rapid response to funding opportunities by participants of the working group, and other interested researchers, in order to reduce uncertainty in estimates or fish carbon flux and/or expand our knowledge of fish contribution to carbon flux
Bios, Working Group Participants
(B.S. Aquatic Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara; Ph.D. Marine Science, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary)
Grace Saba is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University and a faculty member in the Rutgers University Center for Ocean Observing Leadership (RU COOL). Her broad research interests are in the fields of coastal marine organismal ecology and physiology, with emphasis on how organisms interact with their environment and other organisms, how physiological processes impact biogeochemistry, and how climate change impacts these processes.
(B.S. Astronomy, University College London, UK; M.A.St. Theoretical Physics, Cambridge University, UK; D.Phil Astronomy, Sussex University, UK)
Dr. Burd works on process-based models of particulate carbon flux in marine systems. In particular, he specializes in modeling interactions of particles with each other, with dissolved material, and with organisms through production and consumption of particulate material. He is currently working on projects involving modeling the formation and sinking of marine-oil-snow (oil incorporated into marine snow) and on various pathways of carbon export.
(B.S. Oceanography, M.S. Oceanography, Ph.D. Oceanography, University of Washington)
Dr. Dunne is an oceanographer at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and leads the Biogeochemistry, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Ecosystems Division. He is a lead developer of GFDL's climate and earth system models focusing on applications for coupled carbon-climate interactions and marine ecosystem impacts. In addition to his modeling focus he brings experience in ocean biogeochemical instrument design, process surveys, and observational synthesis.
Santiago Hernández León
(B.S. Biology, M.S. Oceanography, Ph.D. Oceanography, Universidad de La Laguna Canary Islands)
Dr. Santiago Hernández-León is professor (chair) of zoology at the Institute of Oceanography and Global Change in the Canary Islands. His research interest is related to the effect of climate on the ecology and physiology of plankton communities. He worked on the role of zooplankton and micronekton in the oceanic carbon flux, and he is especially interested in the assessment of active flux due to vertical migrants in subtropical waters.
(B.S. Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz; M.S. Marine Environmental Science, Stony Brook University; Ph.D. Marine Science, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary)
Dr. Hunnisett is a zooplankton ecologist and biological oceanographer. Her research focuses on how zooplankton influence POC repackaging, contribute to the biological pump, and feed on pico- and nanoplankton. Her research interests include the impacts of climate variation on zooplankton (most recently coastal jellyfish population dynamics) distribution, abundance, and carbon flux through various systems.
(B.Sc. Marine Biology, University of Portsmouth, UK; M.Sc. Marine Biology, University of Essex, UK)
Angela Martin in a Research Associate and PhD student at the University of Agder in South Norway. Her research focuses on the role of fish in the ocean carbon cycle, including direct interactions through bioenergetics, behaviour and movement, and indirect effects such as top-down ecosystem controls and nutrient cycling. Angela is working with well-studied species to supplement existing knowledge with outcomes for carbon. Angela previously communicated on fish carbon science and applications, and advocated for advancement of the topic through her work with Blue Climate Solutions, a project of The Ocean Foundation.
(B.S. Biology and Mathematics, University at Albany; M.S. Fisheries, University of Washington; Ph.D. Fisheries, University of Washington)
Dr. Rose is the France-Merrick Professor in Sustainable Ecosystem Restoration at Horn Point Lab, which is part of the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. Prior to coming to Horn Point in 2017, he was the Associate Dean for Research in the College of the Coast and Environment at Louisiana State University. He started at Oak Ridge National Lab after getting his graduate degrees at University of Washington in Fisheries. His focus is on ecological and fisheries modeling of fish populations, communities, and food webs, and lately he has been coupling the models to 2D and 3D hydrodynamic ocean models to examine ecosystem-based fisheries management and effects of climate change.
(B.A. Geology/Earth Sciences, University of Southern Maine; M.S. Educational Leadership/Public Policy University of Southern Maine; Ph.D. Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire)
Joe Salisbury is an Associate Professor at the ocean Processes Analysis Lab at the University of New Hampshire. His research seeks to characterize distributions of carbon dioxide, air-sea carbon exchange and productivity in riverine-influenced coastal regions. In addition, Joe is presently developing methods for understanding community productivity dynamics and plume detection using satellite ocean color and salinity data.
(B.A. Aquatic Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara; Ph.D. Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz)
Dr. Deborah Steinberg is CSX Professor of Marine Science and Chair of the Department of Biological Sciences at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary. Her major areas of interest are zooplankton ecology and biogeochemical cycling, and effects of climate change on zooplankton community structure. Her current funded research projects include the Palmer Antarctica Long-Term Ecological Research program, Export Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing, and the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study. She is currently a member of the Board of Trustees of the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, and past Chair of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System Council. Dr. Steinberg has won awards for her research and teaching, including the American Geophysical Union’s Sverdrup Award and the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia Outstanding Faculty Award.
(B.Sc. Geology, University of Bristol, Ph.D. Geochemistry, University of Bristol)
Clive Trueman is an Associate Professor in the School of Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, UK. Clive is a geochemical ecologist interested primarily in using natural tracers such as stable isotopes to track the flow of nutrients through food webs and across space.
(B.Sc. Biological Sciences, University of Birmingham; Ph.D. Fish Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Birmingham)
Rod Wilson is a Professor in the Department of Biosciences at the University of Exeter, UK. He is a fish physiologist interested in multiple physiological systems (e.g. respiration, osmoregulation, acid-base regulation, digestion, excretion etc.) and how the physico-chemical environment (in the past, present and future) can influence these processes (and fish populations) and vice versa, i.e. the role marine animals can play in regulating ocean biogeochemical cycles.
Bios, Special Guest Presenters
(B.A. Biology and Society, Cornell University; M.S. Marine Science, University of Maryland – Chesapeake Biological Lab; Ph.D Limnology, University of Wisconsin)
Olaf Jensen is an Associate Professor in the Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University. His primary research interest is the study of fisheries and aquatic ecosystems – including marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments. Much of his work focuses on understanding the status and trends of harvested fish and invertebrate populations and the fishery management strategies that provide the best tradeoff between harvest and conservation within a dynamic aquatic environment. His methods range from field and laboratory studies of individual fish populations and their prey in New Jersey, Louisiana, Mexico, and Mongolia to global meta-analysis using large fishery databases.
(BSE, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University; MSE, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford; PhD, Oceanography, Woods Hole-MIT Joint Program)
Charlie Stock is a Research Oceanographer at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The main objectives of his research are understanding and predicting marine ecosystems dynamics from seasons to centuries through the integration of models and observations. He is a member of GFDL's earth system model development team, and works closely with fisheries and marine resource scientists to apply climate and earth system predictions to marine resource problems.